DTP and hepatitis B vaccines do not cause sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Other vaccines currently routinely recommended to the general population in the U.S.* have not been shown to cause SIDS.
In a 2003 report entitled Immunization Safety Review: Vaccinations and Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), now called the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), concluded that the evidence favored rejection of a causal relationship between DTP vaccine or exposure to multiple vaccines and SIDS . The 2012 IOM report found no new relevant studies of quality in the literature assessing SIDS and DTaP vaccination . Two large randomized controlled trials found no association between SIDS and pentavalent rotavirus vaccine [3, 4]. No increase in the risk of SIDS after immunization with the DTP vaccine was found among a cohort of 129,834 U.S. children born between 1974 and 1984 . A Vaccine Safety Datalink study of more than 350,000 live births between 1993 and 1998 found no association between hepatitis B birth immunization and neonatal death . A meta-analysis found that immunizations are actually associated with a reduced risk of SIDS; however, this may be attributable to the healthy vaccinee effect . A reanalysis of three case-control studies included in this meta-analysis using the self-controlled case series method found neither an increased nor reduced risk of SIDS during the period after vaccination . A retrospective observational study of California infants found no cases of SIDS that were considered to be related to the administration of 46,486 doses of DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine . Case-control and self-controlled case series analyses of the Taiwanese death registration databases found no association between SIDS and DTaP vaccine .
The IOM concluded that there was no mechanistic evidence for an association between SIDS and diphtheria, tetanus or pertussis vaccination, as the publications reviewed provided no evidence beyond a temporal association .
1. Institute of Medicine Immunization Safety Review C. In: Stratton K, Almario DA, Wizemann TM, McCormick MC, eds. Immunization Safety Review: Vaccinations and Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US) Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.; 2003.
2. Institute of Medicine. In: Stratton K, Ford A, Rusch E, Clayton EW, eds. Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2012.
3. Armah GE, Sow SO, Breiman RF, et al. Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2010;376:606-14.
4. Goveia MG, Rodriguez ZM, Dallas MJ, et al. Safety and efficacy of the pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine in healthy premature infants. The Pediatric infectious disease journal 2007;26:1099-104.
5. Griffin MR, et al. Risk of sudden infant death syndrome after immunization with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. N Engl J Med 1988. 319(10):618-23.
6. Eriksen EM, et al. Lack of association between hepatitis B birth immunization and neonatal death: a population-based study from the vaccine safety datalink project. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23(7):656-62.
7. Vennemann MM, et al. Do immunisations reduce the risk for SIDS? A meta-analysis. Vaccine 2007;25(26):4875-9.
8. Kuhnert R, et al. Reanalyses of case-control studies examining the temporal association between sudden infant death syndrome and vaccination. Vaccine 2012;30(13):2349-56.
9. Hansen J, et al. Safety of DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine administered routinely to infants and toddlers. Vaccine 2016;34(35):4172-4179.
10. Huang WT, et al. Vaccination and unexplained sudden death risk in Taiwanese infants. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2017;26(1):17-25.